Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery Disease is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries caused by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis (sometimes called “hardening” or “clogging” of the arteries) is the build-up of cholesterol and fatty deposits (called plaque) on the inner walls of the arteries that restrict blood flow to the heart. Without adequate blood, the heart is starved of oxygen which can cause chest pain (angina). When one or more of the coronary arteries are completely blocked, a heart attack may occur.
Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease
Tightening in the chest
Difficulty in breathing
Shoulder and left arm pain
Neck and jaw pain
If left untreated, Coronary Artery Disease will weaken the heart and may cause heart failure. Thus, timely treatment will prevent fatality and improve quality of life.
Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease
The treatment is based on many factors determined by the symptoms, a physical examination and diagnostic testing. The patient may be asked to change the lifestyle, physical activity and observe diet control along with prescribed medications.
Interventional Procedures :
In this procedure, a small tube (catheter) with a balloon at its tip, is inserted in the blocked artery. The block is then cleared off by rapid inflation-deflation of the balloon, restoring the blood flow. In most patients, a metallic stent or absorbable scaffold is placed inside the artery to keep it open.
A portion of an alternate blood vessel is removed and re-attached to the blocked blood vessel, bypassing the clot. It leads to re-routing of the normal blood flow where the blood did not reach due to the clogged artery.
Factors leading to heart diseases :
Bad Food Habits
Drug Eluting Stents
An interventional procedure, known as Angioplasty, is performed to place a DES in the clogged artery of the patient. DES is a small scaffold of wire coated with a slow-release drug. It is inserted in the clogged artery of the patient to keep it open, thereby enabling an uninterrupted blood flow in the artery. True to its name, DES slowly and directly elutes the drug into the artery to prevent it from being clogged. DES poses a far lower risk of restenosis (re-narrowing of the artery with stent) than the former bare-metal stents.
Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds (BRS)
Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) is a non-metallic mesh tube that is used to treat a narrowed artery. It is similar to a stent but it slowly dissolves once the blocked artery naturally functions and remains open on its own. BVS is designed to provide mechanical support and drug delivery similar to the Drug-Eluting Stents (DES), followed by complete resorption. BVS also uses antirestenotic drugs identical to the second-generation DES, which resorbs early enough to reap the clinical benefits of not leaving a metal device within the artery.
Advantages of BVS
Provides scaffolding and properties required to keep the artery open for sufficient period of time.
Completely absorbed, leaving nothing behind hence removing potential reasons for late side effects
Since the scaffold completely degrades over 3 years, it completely preserves all options for future re-interventions